In Predesign and early design, the impact of glazing percentage on bird safety should be considered and evaluated. If the building use is likely to be associated with large glazed areas, consider if increased risk/adjustments are needed on highly vegetated sites. Additionally, an ecological assessment of the site that includes an evaluation of bird species, habitat, and migration patterns should be considered.
Through the design process, identify attractant areas for birds on the site, plan deterrents for facades adjacent to attractants, and keep glazed areas of buildings greater than 50 ft. away from attractants. Configure building to minimize bird collision traps. Traps can include clear barriers, transparent railings, or other glazed see-through conditions. See guideline for complete conditions deemed to be traps.
Early designs should be evaluated with the Bird-Safe Calculator (Appendix S-5a) and designs should be adjusted to meet bird-safe criteria. Design should be checked against bird-safe criteria and the WBTF in the Bird-Safe Building Calculator update to confirm continued compliance.
Using the Bird-Safe Calculator early in design will assist in matching requirements to the project’s glazing needs, as more treatment is generally needed for higher window-to-wall ratios.
Bird-safe film, which is applied to the exterior surface of glazing has increasingly become available from a variety of manufacturers and provides an alternative means to reduce glazing threat factors. These films generally achieve a lower threat factor for the same visibility as frit, as exterior applied measures are believed to be more visible to birds. An additional benefit noted in some projects is the increased availability of glazing options when separately procuring the glazing and the bird-safety measures.
Renovation projects replacing only a portion of glazing must include adjacent opaque assemblies on the same surface in the Bird-Safe Calculator. If only some windows on a surface are being replaced and some are remaining, the opaque area included in calculations must be pro-rated by the percentage of glazing area replaced.
As the construction documents are developed, continued compliance with all required and pursued recommended bird-safe criteria should be confirmed, adjusting documentation and design as needed.
Contract documents should include those features needed for bird-safe compliance, as calculated using the Bird-Safe Calculator (Appendix S-5a). Bidders should be made aware of specific requirements for sustainable construction according to the B3 Guidelines. Substitutions that would change the bird-safe performance of the building should be monitored, and any material substitutions should meet bird-safe performance criteria. Correct implementation of features affecting bird-safe performance should confirmed according to drawings and specifications. Bird-safe first-year monitoring and Lights Out program criteria should also be implemented in the project documentation. A lighting engineer should be consulted regarding controls for lights to accommodate Lights Out program compliance.
Required first-year bird-safe monitoring should be performed, as should any recommended ongoing monitoring that was pursued, using Appendix S-5f for First-Year Building Monitoring. If pursuing Bird-Safe Case Study Narrative, coordinate with lighting engineer on documentation of lighting benefits anticipated from Lights Out program. Documentation of recommended bird-safe lighting design under S.5L Bird-Safe Lighting Design should also be considered.
Prior to any physical site activities including inspections, disturbance, or mobilization of the project site, the relevant DNR, Minnesota Heritage Division, CBS maps should be consulted to determine if there are any Minnesota state rare, threatened, or endangered species within 3 miles of the subject site. Minnesota state rare, threatened, or endangered species symbols are typically identified as ◊ animal or * plant on the CBS maps.
If a Minnesota state rare, threatened, or endangered species is located within 5 miles of the project site, staff at the MBS of the DNR should be determine the subject site’s distance adjacency to a Minnesota state rare, threatened, or endangered species. If MBS DNR determines that the subject site is within 2 miles of a Minnesota state rare, threatened, or endangered species, the project team should be notified and informed of which plant or animal species is the Minnesota state rare, threatened, or endangered species. The project is then required to create a Minnesota state rare, threatened, or endangered species protection plan for those species on the subject site, in coordination with MBS staff at the DNR.
If bat boxes are required due to the site condition per guidelines, required bat boxes should be located so that the largest surface of the bat box has a south, west, or southeast aspect during the growing season (April–October), so that sun exposure on the bat box is a minimum of six hours per day. Bat boxes should not be mounted in shade and should be seasonally mounted and ready for use by bats no later than April 1. Bat boxes should be located on solid structures with a minimum of a 30-ft. distance from trees (do not mount on poles or trees, and do not mount on or adjacent to windmills). The bottom of bat box should be elevated a minimum of 15 ft. above the ground or at least 12 ft. above the top of nearest vegetation. Bat boxes should be sheltered from prevailing winds during the growing season. They should not be illuminated from above or below. They should not be located immediately above an asphalt road or parking lot. Fabricate larger (>24 in. x >24 in. x 8 in.) bat boxes from natural, dark colored untreated wood with rough surfaces throughout (cedar, cypress, redwood, juniper). Do not use polished or planed surfaces in the construction of bat boxes, and do not attach wires or hardware mesh. Do not paint interiors or exteriors of bat boxes. Use closely spaced (~1/2 in.) multi-chambered bat boxes accessed by bats from below (see Bats Conservation International guidance). Provide a vertical landing pad immediately beneath bat box access point. Use black roofing, maintain waterproofing throughout, and tightly seal. Thoroughly caulk all site buildings adjacent to bat boxes to close openings smaller than a dime to eliminate accidental bat infestation. At year five, post-occupancy, monitor bat boxes to ensure at least 50% of bat boxes are occupied with bats. Report any incidences of white-nose syndrome on bats to DNR Nongame Wildlife. Clean bat boxes annually per Bat Conservation International bat box maintenance guidelines.
Insect-pollinated trees, shrubs, vines, and groundcovers which may be used to create insect pollinator habitats include:
- Spring and summer: cherries, plums, peaches (Prunus spp.), apples, crabapples (Malus spp.), pears (Pyrus spp.), persimmon (Diospyros spp.), hawthorns (Craetagus spp.), serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.), nannyberries (Viburnum spp.), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), holly (Ilex spp.), linden (Tilia spp.), catalpa (Catalpa spp.), dogwoods (Cornus spp.), willows (Salix spp.), redbud (Cercis spp.), hackberries (Celtis spp.), locusts (Gleditsia and Robinia spp.), elderberries (Sambucus spp.), magnolia (Magnolia spp.), tupelo (Nyssa spp.), tulip tree (Liriodendron spp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus spp.), hop tree (Ptelea spp.), mountain ash (Sorbus spp.), golden rain tree (Koelreuteria spp.), pagoda tree (Sophora/Styphnolobium spp.), silverbell (Halesia spp.), buttonbush (Cephalanthus spp.), New Jersey tea (Ceanothus spp.), lead plant (Amorpha spp.), grape vine (Vitis spp.), kiwi fruit (Actinidia spp.), trumpet creeper (Campsis spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), roses (Rosa spp.), blueberries, cranberries (Vaccinium spp.), strawberries (Fragaria spp.), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.), stonecrop (Sedum spp.).
Insect-pollinated herbaceous perennials which may be used to create insect pollinator habitat include:
- Spring: lupine (Lupinus spp.), bloodroot (Sanguinaria spp.), buttercups (Ranunculus spp.), Dutchman’s breeches (Dicentra spp.), columbine (Aquilegia spp.), Virginia bluebells (Mertensia spp.), spiderwort (Tradescantia spp.), lobelias (Lobelia spp.), golden alexanders (Zizia spp.).
- Summer: prairie clovers (Petalostemum spp.), milkweed (Asclepius spp.), wild bergamot (Monarda spp.), giant hysopp (Agastache spp.), beard tongue (Penstemon spp.), bush clovers (Lespedeza spp.), Canada milk-vetch (Astragalus spp.), Culver’s root (Veronicastrum spp.), evening primrose (Oenothera spp.), ironweed (Vernonia spp.), false indigo bush (Baptisia spp.), tickseed (Coreopsis spp.), Canada tick trefoil (Desmodium spp.), obedient plant (Physostegia spp.), mountain mint (Pycnanthemum spp.), partridge pea (Chamaecrista spp.), yellow coneflower (Rudbeckia spp.), cup plant (Silphium spp.), Joe Pye weed (Eupatorium/Eutrochium spp.), blazing stars (Liatris spp.).
- Fall: asters (Aster spp.), sneezeweed (Helenium spp.), gentian (Gentian spp.), boneset (Eupatorium spp.), goldenrods (Solidago spp.), sunflowers (Helianthus spp.).
The lighting zone for the project can be determined by referencing the Joint IDA IES MLO dated June 15, 2011. Lighting zones include the following:
- LZ-0: No ambient lighting
- LZ-1: Low ambient lighting, or for other uses
- LZ-2: Moderate ambient lighting
The determination of the lighting zone and the calculated total site lumens for the site should be recorded. Site lighting requirements should be designed in accordance with the performance method allowed for the lighting zone and a project site plan submitted complying with the total site lumens for the selected light zone.